The history and cause of the bubonic plague

In the first people suffer an infection of the lungs, which leads to breathing difficulties. Treatment is continued for several weeks after fever resolves. No one knew exactly how the Black Death was transmitted from one patient to another, and no one knew how to prevent or treat it.

Rat-associated plague was soon brought under control in most urban areas, but the infection easily spread to local populations of ground squirrels and other small mammals in the Americas, Africa, and Asia. Oriental rat flea Xenopsylla cheopis infected with the Yersinia pestis bacterium which appears as a dark mass in the gut.

This led to the establishment of a Public Health Department there which undertook some leading-edge research on plague transmission from rat fleas to humans via the bacillus Yersinia pestis. Both male and female fleas feed on blood and can transmit the infection. In very rare circumstances, as in the septicemic plaguethe disease can be transmitted by direct contact with infected tissue or exposure to the cough of another human.

Widely known as the disease that caused the "Black Death" of the European Middle Ages, bubonic plague is still around today — although cases are relatively rare. The city's residents fled to the north, but most of them ended up dying during the journey.

This belief led to the idea that the cure to the disease was to win God's forgiveness. The plague was somewhat less common in parts of Europe that had smaller trade relations with their neighbours, including the majority of the Basque Countryisolated parts of Belgium and the Netherlands, and isolated alpine villages throughout the continent.

Treatment usually involves strong and effective antibiotics such as gentamicin or ciprofloxacin, intravenous fluids, oxygen, and, sometimes, breathing support.

Humans can also develop the infection from handling fluids or tissues from infected animals. By60 major and smaller Jewish communities had been destroyed. Today, an average of seven new cases of plague are reported each year in the United States, mostly in the rural West.

The Plague

The foregut proventriculus of this flea is blocked by a Y. The Black Death in particular is described and referenced in numerous contemporary sourcessome of which, including works by ChaucerBoccaccioand Petrarchare considered part of the Western canon.

People who were perfectly healthy when they went to bed at night could be dead by morning. Rodents and many other kinds of animals can be infected with plague-causing bacteria. Septicemic plague, an infection of the bloodstream, accounts for about 10 percent of plague cases and is usually also transmitted through the bite of an infected flea.

But you can also get septicemic plague from direct contact with the bodily fluids of someone infected with the plague, or if you have another form of plague that spreads to your bloodstream.

The bacteria form aggregates in the gut of infected fleas and this results in the flea regurgitating ingested blood, which is now infected, into the bite site of a rodent or human host. The papal court at Avignon was reduced by one-fourth. It is said that the plague takes three forms.

Despite the vast devastation caused by this pandemic, however, massive labor shortages due to high mortality rates sped up the development of many economic, social, and technical modernizations Benedictow, In the spring ofthe plague arrived in Constantinople, working its way from port city to port city and spreading around the Mediterranean Sealater migrating inland eastward into Asia Minor and west into Greece and Italy.

They would beat themselves and one another with heavy leather straps studded with sharp pieces of metal while the townspeople looked on. Common themes include the breakdown of society, institutions, and individuals during the plague, the cultural and psychological existential confrontation with mortality, and the allegorical use of the plague in reference to contemporary moral or spiritual questions.

This proved to be the ruin of many landowners. Plague lab, San Francisco. Bubonic plague is one of three life-threatening diseases caused by the bacteria Yersinia pestis. ShareCompartir A person wearing a hat, a mask suggestive of a bird beak, goggles or glasses, and a long gown.

Plague (Black Death)

In the natural state, the bacteria infect wild rodents. In Germany and England The World Health Organization states that between 1, cases are reported each year worldwide, but there are estimated to be more cases that go unreported. Contemporary accounts of the plague are often varied or imprecise.

From the two said parts of the body this deadly gavocciolo soon began to propagate and spread itself in all directions indifferently; after which the form of the malady began to change, black spots or livid making their appearance in many cases on the arm or the thigh or elsewhere, now few and large, now minute and numerous.

People who died of bubonic plague in a mass grave from — in MartiguesFrance In the Late Middle Ages — Europe experienced the most deadly disease outbreak in history when the Black Death, the infamous pandemic of bubonic plague, hit inkilling a third of the European human population.

You can also catch pneumonic plague if someone with pneumonic plague coughs or sneezes, and you breathe in the infected droplets. However, as a bacterial disease, plague can be treated with antibiotics, and can be prevented from spreading by prompt identification, treatment and management of human cases.

Some warfare strategies have included catapulting corpses over city walls, dropping infected fleas from airplanes, and aerosolizing the bacteria during the Cold War Stenseth, Some people believed that the way to do this was to purge their communities of heretics and other troublemakers — so, for example, many thousands of Jews were massacred in and Plague in the U.

The Grisly Business of Black Death Burials

The flea is parasitic on house and field rats, and seeks out other prey when its rodent hosts die.Pneumonic plague may develop from inhaling infectious droplets or may develop from untreated bubonic or septicemic plague after the bacteria spread to the lungs.

The pneumonia may cause respiratory failure and shock. The Black Death, also known as the Great Plague, the Black Plague, or the Plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated 75 to million people in Eurasia and peaking in Europe from to Bubonic plague is one of three life-threatening diseases caused by the bacteria Yersinia pestis.

Widely known as the disease that caused the "Black Death" of the European Middle Ages, bubonic. Bubonic plague is one of three life-threatening diseases caused by the bacteria Yersinia pestis.

Widely known as the disease that caused the "Black Death" of the European Middle Ages, bubonic. The Black Death, also known as the Great Plague, the Black Plague, or simply the Plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated 75 to million people in Eurasia and peaking in Europe from to The history of plague has had a huge impact on society for centuries.

Numerous references in art, literature, and monuments attest to the horrors and devastation of past plague epidemics.

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The history and cause of the bubonic plague
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